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SAT阅读中幽默和讽刺运用是为了表达观点

  新SAT阅读文章可谓高度标准化,文学一篇,历史一篇,社会研究一篇,科学两篇。文学和历史中的演讲这两类文章往往让学生心塞,究其原因,除了阅读思路需要导通,历史常识需要补充外,还有一个考点在明里暗里作怪,这就是对叙述者态度语气意图的把握。

  今天我们探讨一类,SAT阅读中的幽默和讽刺。幽默或讽刺都是一种方式,方式的运用是为了表达观点。

  幽默humor的解释为:a funny or amusing quality;讽刺irony的解释为:the use of words that mean the opposite of what you really think especially in order to be funny。

  从解释看,幽默和讽刺有联系也有区别,讽刺通常表达的是一种反对意见,但是用一种幽默的方式。正式来说讽刺有三种:Verbal Irony,Situational Irony和 Dramatic Irony。Verbal Irony是我们俗称的“说反话”,Situational Irony是跟初衷相悖的结果即“意料之外的结果”,这两种讽刺在学术考试中比较常见。

  SAT阅读中幽默和讽刺的运用都是为了表达一种观点

  刚刚提到的是基本功,知识点普及完毕,那我们用新SAT阅读题强化一下知识点。

  Certain of her acquaintances were wont to give her plentiful admonition as to the undesirability of interference on behalf of a distressed animal, such interference being “none of her business.” Only once had she put the doctrine of non-interference into practice, when one of its most eloquent exponents had been besieged for nearly three hours in a small and extremely uncomfortable may-tree by an angry boar-pig, while Lady Carlotta, on the other side of the fence, had proceeded with the water-colour sketch she was engaged on, and refused to interfere between the boar and his prisoner.

  The description of how Lady Carlotta “put the doctrine of noninterference into practice” mainly serves to.

  A. foreshadow her capacity for deception.

  B. illustrate the subtle cruelty in her nature.

  C. provide a humorous insight into her character.

  D. explain a surprising change in her behavior.

  这是OG第三套第一篇文章第五题。先看文章,我们来剖析这里面的幽默和讽刺。朋友们告诉Carlotta不要管闲事,Carlotta只乖乖听了一次话,在什么时候呢?就在那个告诉她不要随便管闲事的朋友被一只愤怒的公猪攻击的时候。

  笔者笑点低,已经笑开了。这种讽刺是我们之前讲过的Situational Irony(情景反讽),这样的结果太突然,完全出乎朋友的预料。

  所以我们梳理一下,文章作者对the doctrine of non-interference是反对的,作者用这样意料之外的结果讽刺这个原则。那幽默在哪里呢?当然是Carlotta的行为,面对朋友被围攻,在一旁安静的画画。理解了这些,再看问题我们就有思路了。问题问道描述Carlotta把“不干涉”政策付诸实际的目的是什么?Carlotta的行为描述在文章写作上负责的是幽默的部分,抓准关键点,答案尽在不言中。(答案是C哦)再看一例强化技巧。

  Steele, a Protestant in a Dedication tells the Pope, that the only difference between our Churches in their opinions of the certainty of their doctrines is, the Church of Rome is infallible and the Church of England is never in the wrong. But though many private persons think almost as highly of their own infallibility as of that of their sect, few express it so naturally as a certain french lady, who in a dispute with her sister, said “ I don’t know how it happens, Sister but I meet with nobody but myself, that’s always in the right”…

  The main purpose of Franklin’s comment about the French lady is most likely to。

  A.ridicule the arrogance of the lady.

  B.allude to the division of public opinion.

  C.point out a universal truth in a humorous way.

  D.convey the futility of further dispute.

  这是可汗学院历史类第一篇文章题目。新教徒Steele看问题非常通透,提出天主教和英国国教的信徒对自己信条的理解如此一致:我们是最正确的!重点是转折后作者表达的意思,普通人几乎也是这么想的,但极少有人像a certain french lady,表达的那么naturally。在这里请注意naturally这个词,译为without affectation,不做作,是一个感情色彩正向的词。那作者的态度呢,显然他觉得盲目自我感觉良好是不可取的。在这里,作者用一个正向的词表达一个他反对的观点,是Verbal Irony(反语)。French Lady这部分内容当然还是负责幽默,题目答案为C。

  幽默和讽刺是最难把握的一种态度,啃下这堆硬骨头,后续的学习就顺风顺水啦。